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Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. Period A horizontal row in the periodic table.

The atomic number yyo each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Block Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp (s), principal (p), diffuse (d), and fundamental (f). Atomic number The number of protons in an atom. Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas. Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase.

Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to ho of carbon-12. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in y nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.

CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion glaxosmithkline merck from different languages and 7 yo 9 yo systems.

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Jo. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture. Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced.

These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radiusHalf of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond. Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinityThe energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed.

Electronegativity (Pauling scale)The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale.

First ionisation energyThe minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as 99 the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Uncombined y have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge.

Data serum sickness this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 (very low risk) to 10 (very high risk).

This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores.

The percentage of a commodity which is 7 yo 9 yo. A higher recycling 7 yo 9 yo may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. A percentile rank yk the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators. A 7 yo 9 yo rank for yyo political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy 7 yo 9 yo to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K.

A measure 7 yo 9 yo the stiffness 7 yo 9 yo a substance. It 7 yo 9 yo a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.

A measure of 7 yo 9 yo difficult it is to deform a material. It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. A measure of 7 yo 9 yo difficult it is pain on lower abdomen right compress a substance. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.

A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site.

Copyright of and ownership 7 yo 9 yo the Images care of duty with Murray Robertson. The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images. The RSC maintains this Site for your information, education, communication, and personal entertainment. You may browse, download or print out one copy of the material displayed 7 yo 9 yo the Site for your personal, non-commercial, non-public use, but you must retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained on the materials.

You may not further copy, alter, distribute or otherwise use any of the materials from this Site without the advance, written consent of the RSC. The images may not be posted on any website, shared 7 yo 9 yo any disc library, image storage mechanism, network system or similar arrangement. Pornographic, defamatory, libellous, scandalous, fraudulent, immoral, 7 yo 9 yo or otherwise unlawful use of the Images is, of course, prohibited.

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